Mapping of Land Degradation Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Data in Maharashtra

Objectives: 

Realizing the need for reliable information on degraded land, and the potential of space borne multi-spectral and multi-temporal data inventory and monitoring, land degradation mapping is taken up as part of Natural Resources (NR)  Census programme with the  following  objectives:

  1. To generate land degradation data base for the base year 2005-06 using three seasons (kharif, rabi, zaid) IRS LISS - III satellite data on 1:50,000 scale
  2. To create uniform digital data base for the Maharashtra based on NNRMS standards
  3. To prepare land degradation Information System for easy query and retrieval of Geodatabase

            The land degradation mapping in Maharashtra State has been taken up by the Department of Space along with Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre, (Department of Planning, Govt. of Maharashtra), Nagpur, under Natural Resources Census (NRC) programme as one of the seven natural resources theme. The endeavor of this magnitude calls for adaptation of uniform classification scheme and the usage of common database for deriving the information following the standard image interpretation / analysis approach.

Description:

Land degradation and associated loss of soil productivity, declining soil quality continue to be the subject of environmental concern attracting attention of the world's scientific community. The land serves as storage for water and nutrients required for plants and other living organisms. The demand for food, energy and other human requirements depends upon the preservation and improvement of the productivity of land, which is under tremendous pressure with growing needs of exploding population with increase in the demand for food, fuel, fodder and fibre. The advent of modern age and newer forces, exacerbated by short-term gain driven motives often lead to over-exploitation of natural resources, including depletion of soil fertility and degradation of land resources. Globally almost 18 percent of the earth’s vegetated land have been degraded as a result of human activity (Oldman and others, 1990). In India, 173.64 Mha, or 53 percent, of the total geographical area is affected by desertification (Government of India, Ministry of Environments and Forest, 2006).

Methodology: 

The methodology essentially is based on on-screen interpretation using standard image interpretation keys like tone, texture, size, pattern, association etc. On screen visual interpretation approach envisaged in this project has many advantages.

 

  • Context / Texture / Pattern based classes can be delineated
  • Various enhancement options are possible to delineate a class
  • Multi-band / multi-season data can be easily used in interpretation.
  • Minimizes the issues of sensor radiometry and date of pass
  • Polygons having change can be updated using multi-date data
  • Temporal assessment is fast

            The general approach to delineate various land degradation classes are based on deductive logic approach, in which the areas where there is no scope for land degradation are delineated first. Subsequently, the land degradation units which are quite evident are delineated followed by less evident / areas and those which require more logical analysis. This approach enables easy updation of the features. Figure 1 gives overview of the methodology adopted in the study.

Satellite Data:

            Multi-temporal, geo-rectified Resourcesat-1 LISS-III data acquired during kharif, rabi and zaid seasons of 2005-2006 is used for the interpretation of various land degradation categories. About 105 LISS-III scenes (Kharif / Rabi / Zaid) covering entire state are used for the study (Table 1). Referencing scheme for IRS P6 LISS-III data is given in Figure 2.

 

Ancillary Data:

            Ancillary data in the form of topographic maps, existing land use land cover data, wasteland data and relevant published material are used as reference data. Survey of India topographic maps on 1: 50,000 scale are used for identification of base features and for planning ground data collection. Legacy data supplied by NRSC on salt affected soils, wastelands, biodiversity, generated on different scales are used as a reference during delineation of various land degradation classes.

 

Table 1:  IRS P6, LISS-III Satellite Data Used for the Study

SN

Path

Row

Date of pass

Kharif

Rabi

Zaid

1

94

57

24-Oct-06

2-Feb-06

9-May-06

2

94

58

24-Oct-06

2-Feb-06

15-Apr-06

3

94

59

24-Oct-06

2-Feb-06

13-Apr-06

4

94

60

24-Oct-06

2-Feb-06

15-Apr-06

5

95

57

10-Oct-05

14-Jan-06

20-Apr-06

6

95

58

10-Oct-05

14-Jan-06

20-Apr-06

7

95

59

10-Oct-05

14-Jan-06

20-Apr-06

8

95

60

3-Nov-05

7-Feb-06

20-Apr-06

9

95

61

3-Nov-05

7-Feb-06

20-Apr-06

10

95

62

10-Oct-05

7-Feb-06

20-Apr-06

11

96

57

5-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

1-Apr-06

12

96

58

8-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

1-Apr-06

13

96

59

8-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

25-Apr-06

14

96

60

8-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

25-Apr-06

15

96

61

8-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

25-Apr-06

16

96

62

8-Nov-05

19-Jan-06

25-Apr-06

17

97

57

2-Sep-05

24-Jan-06

6-Apr-06

18

97

58

20-Oct-05

24-Jan-06

6-Apr-06

19

97

59

15-Oct-06

24-Jan-06

6-Apr-06

20

97

60

20-Oct-05

17-Feb-06

6-Apr-06

21

97

61

20-Oct-05

17-Feb-06

6-Apr-06

22

98

57

18-Nov-05

29-Jan-06

11-Apr-06

23

98

58

20-Oct-06

10-Jan-06

11-Apr-06

24

98

59

13-Nov-06

29-Jan-06

11-Apr-06

25

98

60

20-Oct-06

22-Feb-06

11-Apr-06

26

99

57

6-Oct-05

10-Jan-06

15-May-05

27

99

58

25-Oct-06

15-Jan-06

10-May-06

28

99

59

17-Dec-05

27-Feb-06

11-Apr-07

29

99

60

6-Oct-05

27-Feb-06

11-Apr-07

30

100

57

28-Nov-05

15-Jan-06

21-Apr-06

31

100

58

4-Nov-05

8-Feb-06

21-Apr-06

32

100

59

4-Nov-05

13-Feb-06

2-Apr-06

33

101

57

9-Nov-05

20-Jan-06

2-Apr-06

34

101

58

14-Nov-04

20-Jan-06

2-Apr-06

35

101

59

14-Nov-04

13-Feb-06

26-Apr-06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beneficiaries: 

The project outputs would be useful for the following:

  • Provides spatial database on land degradation on 1:50,000 scale for planning reclamation programmes at district level.
  • Facilitates to monitor the same at 5 years time interval to see the impact of reclamation programmes.
  • Facilitates to identify areas of rapid change (hot spots).
  • Serves as a primary database for regional / global environmental studies etc.

            Database so generated would be useful database for different Ministries like Agriculture, Rural Development, Watershed Development Board, Environment and Forest, Water Resources, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, All India Soil and Land Use Survey etc. to take up further studies in reclaiming degraded lands

Quantum of work: 
33
Districts
Project Photographs: 
Land Degradation Mapping Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Data
Path row Overlaid on Maharashtra District Map