Groundwater prospect mapping for Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission

Objectives: 

The Government of India (Department of Drinking Water supply), through the Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM) supplements the efforts of State Government to provide drinking water supply to rural habitations under the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program (ARWP). As part of supplying the drinking water to these habitations, National Remote Sensing Centre, (NRSC), Department of Space, agreed to provide scientific database on drinking water sources (ground water sources) of all habitation, using the satellite data in a time bound period.

The objective of the project is to prepare "Groundwater Prospects Maps” corresponding to Survey of India toposheets of the Maharashtra state on 1: 50,000 scale covering all habitations.

The map has to show -

a) Prospective zone for groundwater occurrence

b) Tentative locations for constructing recharge structures.

Considering the complex nature of the terrain of Maharashtra and quantum of the work involved in the project, total project work has been distributed among three participating agencies as  follows:

  1. Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre (MRSAC) , Nagpur. (27 districts)
  1. Bharthidasan University, Triruchirapally, TN (5 districts)
  1. Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre (RRSSC), Nagpur, MS. (1 district)
Description:

There is an inherent linkage between development and management of ground water resources.  For an effective supply side management, it is essential to have full knowledge of hydrogeological controls which govern the yields and behavior of ground water levels under abstraction stress.  The effects of ground water development can be short term and reversible or long term and quasi-reversible which require a strong monitoring mechanisam  for scientific management.  There is a need for scientific planning in development of ground water under different hydrogeological situations and to evolve effect management practices.  Demand driven development of ground water resources by different user groups without  any scientific planning and proper understanding of the behaviour of local ground water regime, leads to sharp depletion of the resources and also degradation of quality.  Signals of mismanagement of ground water resources are seen in areas where ground water extraction rate has exceeded the natural recharge.  Ground water management has become the foremost challenge for the Organizations dealing with ground water in India.  The activities of the Organizations and policies affecting ground water need to reflect the priority issues with the overall objective to provide water security through ground water management.

Therefore, a comprehensive and a reliable scientific database on ground water for the entire country  is a pre-requisite for proper management of ground water resource in the areas where it is over-exploited and for planning its optimum development and effective utilisation in hitherto unexploited

Methodology: 

The total methodology can be divided into two main parts:

 

I. The first part deals with the delineation of hydrogeomorphic units considering the parameters influencing the hydrogeomorphic properties. It consist of

a.   Creation of individual thematic layers on lithology, geomorphology,  structures, hydrology along with base map details based on visual interpretation  of satellite data in conjunction with limited field checks /  existing data inputs.

 b.     Derivation of  hydrogeomorphic units by integrating the thematic data.

II. The second part deals with evolution of hydrogeomorphic units based on hydro geological characteristics of controlling parameters. It consists of -

  1. Estimation of groundwater prospects by taking into account the well observatory data
  2. Identification of suitable locations for constructing recharge structures along with prioritization of the units.

Total 18 digital layers are generated under the project. These are as follows :

 

Sr. No.

Name of Themes

Name of layer

Type of the layer

Inputs data used

1

Lithology

LITHO

Poly

Geological Survey of India (GSI) database and Satellite data

2

Structure

STRU1 - Lineaments

Line

---- do -----

3

 

STRU2 - folds, bedding

Line

---- do -----

4

Geomorphology

GEOM - Geomorphology

Poly

Satellite data

5

Hydrology

DRAINL - Drainage

Line

Existing database rectified with satellite data

6

 

DRAINP - River/Ponds/Reservoirs

Poly

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

7

 

CANAL

Line

Existing database rectified with satellite data

8

 

SPRING

Point

Satellite data

9

 

RAIN - Rainfall

Point

Existing database

10

 

IRG-AREA - Irrigated area

Poly

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

11

 

WELLS

Point

Digitization of the field data received from GSDA

 

 

WRDPL - Water Recharge Structures

Line

Satellite data

13

 

WRDPP - Water Recharge Structures

Point

Satellite data

14

Base

ROADS

Line

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

15

 

RAIL

Line

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

16

 

ADMN- Administrative Boundaries

Poly

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

17

 

SETTLEP - Settlements

Point

Existing database, modified as per requirement.

18

Hydro-geomorphic Layer

LITHGEOM

Poly

By integrating the lithology and geomorphology layers

Internal and external quality check procedure is evolved for generating error free maps. Considering the large area and quantum of field work involved in the project, the field survey work is allotted to State Groundwater Department i.e. Groundwater Survey & Development Agency (GSDA), Pune. Flow chart showing salient features of the methodology is given as Annexure I.

Beneficiaries: 

The  user departments can use  these maps for narrowing  down the target zones around the problem habitations for detailed ground hydrogeological and geophysical  investigations, ultimately to select the sites for water source.  Some of the user departments are listed below :

 

  1. Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency (GSDA) , (State Groundwater Dept.)
  2. Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikan (MJP) (State Dept.)
  3. Central and State Irrigation Department.
  4. Agriculture Department.
  5. Central Groundwater Board (CGWB)
  6. State universities and NGO

 

Quantum of work: 
33
Districts
Project Photographs: 
Ground Water Prospects Map of Hingoli District
Ground Water Prospects Map of Toposheet No. 56 E/02
Ground Water Prospects Map